Threesology Research Journal
The Devil's Advocate and Threes Research
~ The Study of Threes ~

Devil's Advocate Series:
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In speaking about photosynthesis, the word "photo" may bring to mind the variations that not only occur at different periods of the day but also at night, such as the brightness of a full moon. In addition, when discussing the color of the world as it may have been billions of years ago due to different compositions of dominant materials during different time periods, the color spectrum can be used as a scale of measurement with respect to the differing intensities by which plant-based photosynthesis occurs. In a more direct reference to what I'm getting at, is that the position of the Sun on its daily path exercises more and less poignant exertions on plants, thereby creating a pattern which can be plotted on a numerical graph. For example, we can say that the most intense "moment" of the Sun's irradiation is the value "1", while lesser gradations are assigned number values following this symbol. And even if we were to uncover a scale of numbers exceeding the color spectrum quantity proposed by Newton, the fact remains that we are using a small number value that we can either argue is inherent with the material being studied, or come to question why small number values are being used in different subject matter, and thus entertain the idea that such a recurrence is suggestive of an imposed constraint on human thinking... perhaps due to an environmental circumstance that I am at present considering to be related to the incremental deterioration of the planet which is forcing all of life to adopt a small-number orientation as a pseudo-survival mechanism... I say "pseudo" because it is a survival mechanism leading humanity over the cliff of extinction... like a herd mentality that socially rationalizes the usage thereof and makes laws to demand its usage. Like Newton, we are being forced into adopting predispositions of cognitive orientation. (Newton originally divided the spectrum into six named colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet, but then added indigo because of his philosophical disposition towards thinking the quantity of "seven" was somehow representative of a perfect number as derived from the ancient Greek sophists, of there being a connection between the colors, the musical notes, the known objects in the solar system, and the days of the week.)

However let me note that I consider the presence of multiple spectrums of development occurring concurrently or even simultaneously such as in the case of pre- and post-biological development and the succeeding and interrelated development of the simple to complex life forms such as humanity. Examples are the presence of the triplet code in simple and complex life forms as well as the three germ layers in their various monoploblastic, Diploblastic, triploblastic ensembles. Each developmental process whether or not a full "three" is achieved as yet in the history of the planet, is a spectrum unto its own and alongside one or more others that may be occurring. Let me provide a preliminary introduction of such a timeline as is presently being conceived. Clearly the old singular linear model of geologically-matched biological development is particularly simplistic for more detailed representations many researchers are striving to conceptualize in their own research interests. Eventually I will add the overlapping variables of the expanding Universe, rotation rates of the Earth, oxygenation of the atmosphere, etc...:

Overlapping spectrums of pre and post biological development

Developing a time-line referencing "threes" examples necessarily entails referencing those patterns which lead up to a three and those which do not, as well as for example those patterns which do not appear to represent an explicit "three" but can be in someway's interpreted as such. For example the five fingers and five toes with two digits on the thumb and three digits for the fingers, and the spreading out thereof as an "aborted?" radial plan, where the "radial" is alternatively described as circular aligned with the linear-circular-triangular geometric profile. Whereas the "5" is a recurrence, this recurrence may not suggest a dominant currency of activity like that of the "1" and "2" and "3" patterns. Then again perhaps it does but has been overlooked like the recurrence of so many (small numbered) patterns. Time will tell as we pursue greater detail for the development of the timeline in the decades ahead.

For a moment, let's take a look at the Pentadactyl limb since some readers may think that it represents a wrench thrown into the works of a "Threesological" perspective. Here is an example of the idea:

The Pentadactyl idea is a reference to the third section

Pentadactyl limb as an analogy ot a standard cognitive model

First off, the word "Pentadactyl" illustrates the human mind focusing on the 3rd section of the overall limb, in that we either divide the limb into a hierarchically arrayed "one-bone, two-bone, many-bone" assignment, or an "upper-middle-lower" designation which has a Sociologically applicable dimension which can be explored further, and I may do so later on in the discussion. For now, it is of value to point it out:

The Pentadactyl limb is cut into thirds

Interestingly, while there is a usage of the terms "Homologous" (similar structure) and "Analogous" (similar function), there is not distinct referencing of a quantitative comparison, though it is used and implied by the two terms. The inclination or 'deferment' of the human mind using two... and only two as major comparative themes of reference suggests a cognitive stopping point has been effected, similar to that found in the stopping points of primitives in history in their development of quantitative number usage. The "One- Two- Many" words for number quantities is an example of using three number words... each assumed to have had their own stages of development with stop gaps before the next quantitative value became adopted by different language communities with a developing commerce involving collecting/hoarding, selling and buying.

We do not make usage of a distinct reference where a quantitative measurement is part of the formulation though an analysis may well contain such a usage. Thus, such a usage would seem to require a definitive reference of its own.

Three examples for comparing the pentadactyl limb

Let us look at some "three"-based types of locomotion since we are on the subject of limbs:

Three froms of Terrestrial mammal locomotion

Three types of Protozoa locomotion

3 basic arcraft movements

Tripod and singular insect gaits

However, let us not discount attempts by biology to have an inherent inclination to be individually expressive as might be denoted by the word "creativity", though most biological expressions are conformist viewed as being constrained... like one's attempt to build a shower whose dimensions are outside conventional manufactures designs, requiring one to look for someone who can create a non-typical design according to one's own plans... and yet even these so-called liberal makers engage in conformities (i.e. business tactics supported by legalities developed by (status-quo mediocrity) dubbed safety rules/guidelines/procedures (S.tandard O.perating P.rocedure) which do not themselves go out of their way to encourage nor permit creative dimensions exceeding the rules which are meant to perpetuate both the rules and rule makers)— so as to increase the amount of money (and manipulative control) they can get off a single person (or group) such as when a manufacturer refusing to build a shower stall to a customer's expectations without also being able to install it... or insisting upon taking measurements in a customer's home, whereby the cost of the shower and labor will be determined by the quality of the neighborhood in which the person lives (middle class, upper class, etc.), lavishness of home furnishings, employment of the customer, type of vehicle in the driveway, presumed cost of house, cost of apparel, etc...

It is the same old song and dance where a person or group is forced to conform or pay dearly for their non-conformity... and yet, perhaps in some cases what is worse, is that the non-conformity (like the LGBTQ or some other social diseases), move to position itself into a pandemic situation by insinuating and integrating and otherwise weaseling itself through the three models of symbiotic relationships: mutualism, Commensalism, and/or parasitism under the facade of an "extenuating normalcy" dubbed with the moniker of "creativity" or whichever politically viable term is most amenable in a given time and place; but nonetheless creates a distortion of the basic conformist plan which... because it appears to be linked to an environmentally directed course of incremental deterioration, must try to eventually regain the footing of that particular type of "following-in-the-footsteps" formula of equilibrium, unless its presumed creativity is thus directed towards the development of a species that is enabled to remove itself from its Earthly constraints that are being projected into the recurring patterns that I am trying to draw out in the time-line being developed.

If a person objects to the idea of less, some, and more currencies represented in numerical, geometric and other patterns represented by the focus of attention on the 1,2,3 lineage because they are focused on exceptions such as 4,5,6,7,8, or otherwise, then we are obliged to contain them in the timeline and note whether they are a standard re-currency, or are they an exception to the currency such as the occasional presence of a two-dollar bill being used?

As a result of banking policies with businesses which have resulted in low production numbers due to lack of demand, two-dollar bills do not circulate as well as other denominations of U.S. currency. This comparative scarcity in circulation, coupled with a lack of public knowledge that the bill is still in production and circulation, has also inspired urban legends about its authenticity and value and has occasionally created problems for those trying to use the bill to make purchases. The apparent scarcity of the $2 bill, in spite of its production figures, also means that large numbers of the bills are taken out of circulation and collected by people, who may believe the bill to be rarer than it actually is.

United States two-dollar bill

Alternative references: United States Dollar; Slang terms for money; Promotional United States fake currency

Analogous to the topic of biology, in the American denominations of money we find a mere 18 varsities of three different species, with the third species as a reference to those on the verge of extinction, though they are sought after by collectors:

Species 1 = Metal Coins (still being minted)

  1. one-cent coin (penny)
  2. five-cent coin (nickel)
  3. ten-cent coin (dime)
  4. 25-cent coin (quarter)
  5. 50-cent coin (fifty-cent piece/ half-a-dollar)
  6. 100-cent coin (dollar piece)

Species 2 = Paper/Rag bills (still being printed)

  1. 1-dollar bill
  2. 2-dollar bill
  3. 5-dollar bill
  4. 10-dollar bill
  5. 20-dollar bill
  6. 50-dollar bill
  7. 100-dollar bill

Species 3 = Old Paper/Rag bills (no longer being printed but still considered viable tender... thus, they are still "alive".)

  1. 500-dollar bill
  2. 1,000-dollar bill
  3. 5,000-dollar bill
  4. 10,000-dollar bill
  5. 100,000-dollar bill

Source: US Dollar Symbols and Denominations

With respect to patterns, the word "pattern" is frequently substituted such as in the case of distinguishing body plans with the word "symmetry" as the collating objective, of which there typically are three that become identified (1. Spherical, 2. Radial, 3. Bilateral), but with the addition of the notion noted as "asymmetry", we have a 3-to-1 variation of assignment. The development of these body plans as a collective spectrum of development will have to be placed onto our time-line. In some variations of this body-plan formula based on symmetry, the "Spherical" selection is lumped together with "radial" and there is the remaining three types of Asymmetry, Radial, and Bi-lateral.

The color spectrum seen in a prisim

The point to be made with a question is whether photosynthesis is "felt" by plants in a three-patterned way? While the different colors affect the rate of photosynthesis, are there three colors which are most dominant? How much of the EM spectrum affects (or effects) photosynthesis besides the visible? (I am neither inclined to accept everything I read nor unafraid to re-question old ideas from a different perspective... even if the same questions appear to have been already asked and answered to the satisfaction of others.)

How Different Colors of Light Affect Plant Growth

  • Ultraviolet (200 nm to 380 nm)- Being exposed to UV light for a long period of time has harmful effects on humans. Likewise, exposure for a long time to this type of light will damage the plants that you are growing. A study conducted demonstrated that plants raised without exposure to UV light exhibited enhanced growth.
  • Violet (380 nm to 445 nm)- On the other hand, studies have shown that when a plant receives visible violet light, the color, taste, and aroma of the plant are enhanced. Additionally, the plant's antioxidants are able to perform their functions more efficiently, which prevents the cells in the plant from being damaged.
  • Blue (450 nm to 495 nm)- Blue light has one of the largest effects on the development of a plant. Multiple studies have shown that exposing a plant to this color influences the formation of chlorophyll, which enables the plant to intake more energy from the sun. It also controls a plant's cellular respiration and lessens water loss through evaporation during hot and dry conditions. Blue light also has an effect on photosynthesis, and more exposure to this light can increase a plant's growth and maturity rates. This process is called photomorphogenesis. Overall, blue light has an influence over multiple functions in a plant's life, and is a crucial color to have in your own grow room or grow box in order to ensure the most optimal growth.
  • Green (495 nm to 570 nm)- Most of the plants that we see around us possess a green color. This is due to the fact that they absorb all of the colors in the light spectrum (blue, red, violet, etc) but reflect the green one. As such, only the green light is bounced back to our eyes. Even with the relatively low amount absorbed compared to the other colors, a study found that green light enhances the production of chlorophyll which helps with photosynthesis while giving the plants a greener color. Overall, adding the green color to your plants does not have much effect in their life process compared to other light colors such as blue. Employing this type of light would be as a pigment for proper viewing of your plants in the grow room or grow box, but not necessary for the growth of the plant itself.
  • Yellow (570 nm to 590 nm)- Since yellow has a similar wavelength to green they both show similar properties in plants. A source from NASA indicates that yellow light does not contribute to photosynthesis since the wavelength of the light is reflected by the plant and is not absorbed. Additionally, just like with green light, a study showed that when a plant was exposed to yellow light compared to blue and red, the growth of the plant tested was reduced.
  • Red (620 nm to 720 nm)- Exposure to red light is another crucial factor which contributes to the optimal development of a plant. Individually, red light won't have a major effect on a plant, but when combined with blue light, it makes the plant yield better results when flowering. A study which compared red light, blue light, and a mixture of both indicated that even though plants which grew under red light yielded more leaves than the ones grown under blue lights, the combination of both produced an amount of leaves which surpassed the plants who grew strictly under red light. A similar case occurred during the growth of wheat where the crop yielded far better results when grown under a mixture of red and blue light, compared to strictly red light.
  • Far Red (720 nm to 1000 nm)- Even though little absorption occurs with this type of light, it plays an important role in plant germination and flowering. Red light and far red light go hand-in-hand in regards to the effects that they have on plants. A regular plant has a phytochrome system (a light detection system) which regulates its growth, adjusting itself depending on the type of light that it is exposed to. In this system, there are two predominant forms of plant protein: its biologically inactive form (Pr), and its biologically active form (Pfr). When a plant perceives the red light, Pr transforms into Pfr, and if a plant receives the far-red light, it's Pfr changes to Pr. Pfr is important because it triggers plant growth, but it slowly reverts back to Pr over time when the plant is located in the dark. At the end of the day, a plant's flowering and vegetative growth is directly influenced by the Pr to Pfr ratio.

    An example on how the Far Red light properties can be used to your advantage to have a higher yield is seen in cannabis growth. During the day, this plant exhibits the most flowering, and during the night it ripens. Being a short day plant, it normally requires 12 hours of exposure to light, and 12 hours of darkness. Yet thanks to far-red light, it's phytochrome conversion is sped up, making it go into a night state quicker and requiring less time in the darkness. This way, flowering can occur under a longer daylight period, which in turn produces a greater yield.

Sources listed:

  1. Effects of Near Ultraviolet and Green Radiations on Plant Growth by Richard M. Klein, Pamela C. Edsall, and Arthur C. Gentile
  2. Effect of Short-Wavelength light on Plant Physiology
  3. Publication not available
  4. NASA: Light Effects on Plant Behavior
  5. Effects of blue, red, and blue/red lights of two different PPF Levels on growth and Morphogenesis of lettuce plants by T. Yanagi, K. Okamoto, S. Takita
  6. Photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield of wheat plants grown under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with and without supplemental blue lighting by G.D. Goins, N.C. Yorio, M.M. Sanwo, and C.S. Brown
  7. Page is re-directed to "Notable Immigrant Biologists" reference
  8. Phytochrome: Light Regulates Plant Growth and Development
  9. The effect of red and far red light on flowering
  10. Phytochrome manipulation for growing cannabis? by SuperAngryGuy

plant growth and the EM spectrum

The effeciency of photosynthesis

Witness the influence of the sun on the seasonal abundance of plant matter produced on land and in our oceans.
Timelapse: Photosynthesis seen from space

Origination date: Tuesday, June 25, 2019... 4:41 AM
Initial Posting: Saturday, August 31st, 2019... 7:43 AM

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland