Threesology Research Journal
Artificial Intelligence and 3sology (56K)
Page 14

Note: the contents of this page as well as those which precede and follow, must be read as a continuation and/or overlap in order that the continuity about a relationship to/with the typical dichotomous assignment of Artificial Intelligence (such as the usage of zeros and ones used in computer programming) as well as the dichotomous arrangement of the idea that one could possibly talk seriously about peace from a different perspective... will not be lost (such as war being frequently used to describe an absence of peace and vice-versa). However, if your mind is prone to being distracted by timed or untimed commercialization (such as that seen in various types of American-based television, radio, news media and magazine publishing... not to mention the average classroom which carries over into the everyday workplace), you may be unable to sustain prolonged exposures to divergent ideas about a singular topic without becoming confused, unless the information is provided in a very simplistic manner.

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Artificial Intelligence and 3sology Introduction
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The usage of the words "input" and "output" are decidedly applicable in the present discussion of Artificial Intelligence, since at least some forms of intelligence appear to require the grammatical structure of language which can be likened to an as yet incompletely understood computer code because we are trying to use a binary system of perception on that which regularly presents us with recurring instances of three-patterned structures. And though the following expression is applied solely to the context of a language environment as it is being represented in the article, it actually portrays an informative over-view of human cognition if one's perception would widen the lens and increase its magnification in terms of a Trinary concept involving a 1, 2, 3 maturational development sequence:

It is important, nevertheless, not to over-emphasize the semantic incommensurability of languages. Presumably, there are many physiological and psychological constraints that, in part at least, determine one's perception and categorization of the world. It may be assumed that, when one is learning the denotation of the more basic words in the vocabulary of one's native language, attention is drawn first to what might be called the naturally salient features of the environment and that one is, to this degree at least, predisposed to identify and group objects in one way rather than another. It may also be that human beings are genetically endowed with rather more specific and linguistically relevant principles of categorization. It is possible that, although languages differ in the number of basic colour categories that they distinguish, there is a limited number of hierarchically ordered basic colour categories from which each language makes its selection and that what counts as a typical instance, or focus, of these universal colour categories is fixed and does not vary from one language to another. If this hypothesis is correct, then it is false to say, as many structural semanticists have said, that languages divide the continuum of colour in a quite arbitrary manner. But the general thesis of Structuralism is unaffected, for it still remains true that each language has its own unique semantic structure even though the total structure is, in each case, built upon a substructure of universal distinctions.

Source: "Linguistics." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Let's take a look at some three-patterned references involving language:

  • 3 Esophagus parts: Pars Cervicalis~ Pars Thoracica~ Pars Abdominalis
  • 3 single and 3 pairs of cartilage compose the frame (skeleton) of the larynx
  • 3 basic parts to all languages: Subject~ Object~ Verb (not necessarily in this order)
  • 3-model structure of all languages: Phonology~ Grammar~ Lexicon
  • 3 parts to speech: Consonants~ Vowels~ Supra-segmentals
  • 3 stress forms in language: Primary~ Secondary~ Weak
  • 3 English Language divisions: Old~ Middle~ Modern
  • 3 Archaic Chinese Language divisions: Early~ Middle~ Late
  • 3 sentence Ending punctuation marks: Period~ Question Mark~ Exclamation Point
  • 3 sentence Types: Simple~ Compound~ Complex
  • 3 library researches: Author~ Title~ Subject
  • 3-part mnemonic rule: I before E except after C
  • 3 Noun/Pronoun types: Person~ Place~ Thing
  • 3 Pronoun types: First person~ Second person~ Third person
  • 3 Personal Pronoun Cases: Subjective~ Objective~ Possessive
  • 3 Personal Pronoun Genders: Masculine~ Feminine~ Neuter
  • 3 Verb Moods: Indicative~ Imperative~ Subjunctive
  • 3 Verb Inflections: Tense~ Mood~ Number
  • 3 Adjective comparison degrees: Positive~ Comparative~ Superlative
  • 3 Affix subdivisions: Prefixes~ Infixes~ Suffixes
  • 3 correct basic punctuation units: Phrase~ Independent Clause~ Dependent Clause
  • 3 word variation categories: Antonyms~ Homonyms~ Synonyms
  • 3 types of Verbals (special forms of a verb): Gerund~ Infinitive~ Participle
  • 3 successive stages of writing development: Logography~ Syllabography~ Alphabetography

3 or more items of equal importance in a series is sometimes referred to as a Rule-of-thumb for using commas.

3 basic strategies underlying writing systems differ in the size of the speech unit denoted by one written sign:

  1. A single basic sound.
  2. A whole syllable
  3. A whole word

3 operations involved in the understanding of sentences according to models of normal sentence comprehension:

  1. You have to parse the sentence into grammatical components such as subject and object (syntax).
  2. You have to retrieve from your knowledge of language the specific meanings of the nouns and verbs (semantics).
  3. You have to map semantics onto syntax.

3 types of messages:

  1. Nominal
  2. Expressive (sometimes called emotional)
  3. Predicative (sometimes called Propositional)

3 subtle knowledge criteria that young children are said to have, according to experimental evidence:

  1. Syntactic structure (Grammatical arrangement of words in sentences.)
  2. Phonology (Organization of the sound system.)
  3. Semantics (The meaning of a word, phrase, sentence, or text.)

(These 3 are thought not to have been learned by Induction~ Imitation~ Instruction.)

3 great writing steps:

  1. Sumerian phonetization
  2. West Semitic syllabary
  3. Greek alphabet

3 writing systems on Rosetta Stone:

  1. Hieroglyphics
  2. Demotic Script
  3. Greek

3 Mayan Codexs:

  1. Dresden Codex
  2. Madrid Codex
  3. Paris Codex

3 languages being spoken in Africa thousands of years ago derived from the evidence in the names of plants in modern African languages:

  1. Ancestral Nilo-Saharan
  2. Ancestral Niger-Congo
  3. Ancestral Afroasiatic

Source: Language 3's page 3

3 rulers are noted for carrying out experiments (by isolating children from all spoken language influences) to determine which language would be spoken first, and hence, identify the first language:

  1. Egyptian Pharaoh Psammetichus (664 - 610 B.C.)
  2. James IV of Scotland (A.D.1473 - 1513)
  3. Roman Emperor Fredrick II of Hohenstaufen (A.D. 1200's)

Source: 3s poster column 3

But language requires some mechanism of hearing, even if it is nothing more than some basic response to vibration such as the pulses felt through the ground or seen in water from an object making contact with the surface (for example: a rock dropped in a pool of water or the weight of a walking dinosaur... or a large tree falling on the ground). The mechanism of hearing and associated ideas should be mentioned in a discussion of language... otherwise, we might have to automatically conclude that the binary "language" is like the attempts of a deaf person trying to speak. If one would try to argue that the electrical impulses of a circuit are comparable to the vibrational pressure of sound denoted as an underlying requirement for word production, then one must identify the structure of the hearing apparatus in an electrical circuit. If it is found to be binary, then we should more readily distinguish a difference between the mechanism of hearing and its application to words and idea development, from which are notions of intelligence are derived. The fact that our human understanding of hearing involves numerous three-patterned references that have no doubt influenced the three-patterned structure of language and ideas, underlies those considerations of distinction of what we mean by an artificial, as opposed to a natural intelligence.

3-Patterned Ear Structure

3 overall divisions:
Outer - Middle - Inner

3 middle ear divisions:
Tympanum - Epitympanum - Mastoid antrum

3 eardrum membranes:
Cutaneum - Collagen fibers - Mucosm

3 semi-circular canals

3 bones (ossicular chain):
Incus - Stapes - Malleus

3 main malleus ligaments:
Anterior- Lateral -Superior

3 incus anchorage points:
Malleus - Stapes - Bony fossa wall

3 cochlea sections (Scala):
Vestibuli- Tympani -Cochlear duct

3 extrinsic muscles (Auricularis):
Anterior- Superior - Posterior

3 sound conduction paths:
Elec. - Mech. - Fluid
Bone (solid) - Air (gas) - Fluid (liquid)

3 nerve stimulation paths:
Mech.- Chem. - Elect.

3 outer hair cell rows (typical in mammals)
Human ear's patterns-of-three (20K)

3 theories of hearing

At this point, let us try to imagine our language development if our ear components exhibited a different predominant pattern: 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, etc..., (such in the case of an electrical/mechanical [computer] "organism" using a binary language.) If the mechanism of "hearing" for an electrical circuit was other than a two-patterned phenomena, we might well see this pattern being repetitively expressed. The human counter-part would thus be force to comply because the pattern would thus be normal and natural... and not an artificial construct. The normal and natural three-patterned structure of hearing is reflected in the many three-patterned ideas encountered in different subject areas. It is a hearing mechanism tied to a brain mechanism... both of which are subject to changes brought on by the circumstances and pressures of the prevailing social and planetary environment.

  • 3 main forms of ossicular chain fixation: Fluid - Mechanical -Otosclerosis
  • 3 classes of ossicular lever action: Force arm - Resistance arm - Fulcrum
  • 3 principal types of deafness: Conduction - Nerve - Stimulation
  • 3 acoustic distortion forms: Frequency - Phase - Amplitude
  • 3 basic properties of vibrating bodies: Inertia - Elasticity - Dissipation
  • 3 sound characteristics: Pitch - Volume (intensity) - Tone
  • 3 Sound wave propagation processes: Diffraction - Transmission - Reflection
  • 3 turns to the Cochlea, variously mismeasured as 2 3/8, 2 1/4, 2 5/8, 2 1/2, 2 3/4, 2 7/8, etc., ???

Stark & Nathanson (1973) differentiated three types of infant vocalizations:

  1. Cry sounds (sounds produced in acute stress such as pain or hunger)
  2. Discomfort sounds (a lesser degree of discomfort such as when not reaching a toy)
  3. Vegetative sounds (coughs, burps, sneezes)

Wolff (1965) described three cry types:

  1. Basic cry
  2. Mad/Angry cry
  3. Pain cry

Truby & Lind (1965) referred to three acoustic types of cry:

  1. Phonation (basic cry)
  2. Dysphonation (turbulence)
  3. Hyperphonation (shift)

3 successive/overlapping stages of infant babbling (examples):

  1. Single Chunks (Ba)
  2. Double chunks (MaMa)
  3. Triple Chunks (DaDaDa)
    (combinations produce long strings of "reduplications")

3 successive/overlapping stages of word development (examples):

  1. Single word (Doggie)
  2. Double word (Doggie Come)
  3. Triple word (Doggie Come Here)
    (combinations can produce yakety-yak-yak)

  • 3 Esophagus parts: Pars Cervicalis - Pars Thoracica - Pars Abdominalis
  • 3 single and 3 pairs of cartilage compose the frame (skeleton) of the larynx
  • 3 basic parts to all languages: Subject - Object - Verb
  • 3-model structure of all languages: Phonology - Grammar - Lexicon
  • 3 parts to speech: Consonants - Vowels - Supra-segmentals
  • 3 stress forms in language: Primary - Secondary - Weak
  • 3 English Language divisions: Old - Middle - Modern
  • 3 Archaic Chinese Language divisions: Early - Middle - Late
  • 3 sentence Ends: Period - Question Mark - Exclamation Point
  • 3 sentence Types: Simple - Compound - Complex
  • 3 library researches: Author - Title - Subject
  • 3-part mnemonic rule: I before E except after C
  • 3 Noun types: Person - Place - Thing
  • 3 Pronoun types: First person - Second person - Third person
  • 3 Personal Pronoun Cases: Subjective - Objective - Possessive
  • 3 Personal Pronoun Genders: Masculine - Feminine - Neuter
  • 3 Verb Moods: Indicative - Imperative - Subjunctive
  • 3 Verb Inflections: Tense - Mood - Number
  • 3 Adjective comparison degrees: Positive - Comparative - Superlative
  • 3 Affix subdivisions: Prefixes - Infixes - Suffixes
  • 3 basic correct punctuation units: Phrase - Independent Clause - Dependent Clause
  • 3 word variation categories: Antonyms - Homonyms - Synonyms
  • 3 types of Verbals (special forms of a verb):Gerund - Infinitive - Participle
  • 3 successive stages of writing development: Logography - Syllabography - Alphabetography
  • 3 great writing steps: Sumerian phonetization - West Semitic syllabary - Greek alphabet
  • 3 writing systems on Rosetta Stone: Hieroglyphics - Demotic Script - Greek
  • 3 languages on Bihistun Rock: Old Persian, Akkadian (or Babylonian) and Elamite
  • 3 languages on the Galle stone tablet inscription: Chinese, Tamil and Persian
  • 3 Mayan Codices: Dresden Codex - Madrid Codex - Paris Codex
  • 3 languages on Sumerian Cuneiform: Semitic Babylonian - Indo-European Persian - Elamite

3 (talking) drills: Imitation - Substitution - Transformational (Guided repetition to instill a particular aspect of language in a learner)

Source: 3sological Perspective of Clausewitzian theory

Clausewtizian Theory deals with military strategy, frequently involving large and extended volumes of sounds. In present day military assaults, the usage of loud noises that others call music, are sometimes used to startle and assist in the subduction of opposing combatants who may them choose to stay put and fight, or take flight. Para-military units called swat-team police forces may use percussion grenades to force suspects into submission thereby not giving them an opportunity to effect a "fight or flight" response. Hence, a person is forced into accepting a third, "submission" alternative.

The old two-patterned "fight or flight" behavioral mechanism of animal behavior has become overlayed with a three-patterned idea involving submission, thus providing the potential for either a gain, or at least having not to suffer any loss. Similarly, the old 'black and white' opposition has at times been subjected to a third item called "grey area", as a beneficial mixture, or as an indication that alternatives can be adopted to display a preference for one or the other extreme... depending on the players and context involved. There are other binary formulas being used analogically, and has become a standardized orientation in psychology such as the Nature versus Nurture debate regarding human behavior. The following is a list of some other two-patterned (binary) concepts labeled as dichotomies (such as Microcosm/Macrocosm), being used in psychology:


  • Conscious mentalism - Unconscious mentalism: Emphasis on awareness of mental structure or activity vs. unawareness; coincides with rationalism - irrationalism dichotomy.

  • Behaviorism - Mentalism: Proper study of psychological focuses on objective content or on subjective content.

  • Determinism - Indeterminism - Nondeterminism: Human events completely determined by antecedents and explicable vs. determined but incompletely explicable vs. not determined.

  • Empiricism - Rationalism: Major, if not exclusive source of knowledge is experience vs. reason.

  • Functionalism - Structuralism: Psychology should describe adaptive activities vs. elemental classes and contents.

  • Mechanism - Vitalism: Activities of living beings completely explicable by physiochemical constituents vs. not so explicable.

  • Molecularism - Molarism Small versus Large units of behavior.

  • Monism - Dualism: Fundamental principle or entity in universe is of one kind vs. two kinds, mind and matter.

  • Nativism - Empiricism: Thought and behavior emerges from innate structures vs. emerges from experiences.

  • Subjectivism - Objectivism: Introspective accounts of experience do, or do not, constitute valid data.

  • Universalism - Relativism: Is the world an objective entity, the same for everyone, or is it relative to the perceiver?

The foregoing is a marvelous list but there are other examples in the outline. The outline even provides some patterns-of-three examples and may well introduce you to the "Third Force" topic. However, it doesn't provide a reference to the Monism (one) - Dualism (two) - Pluralism (three) pattern of overall thinking, which is succinctly described as the "one - two - many" pattern... quite possibly because the professor of the course is not yet aware of the "threes" prevailency. And in particular, the above reference does not provide you with a similar list of trichotomies... but should be, since "threes" are very much a part of our historical thinking. The students taking the professor's class are being deprived of a very real thinking pattern, particularly when it is quite pervasive and documented by cultural anthropologists such as Alan Dundez. The students should be up in arms and protest against such a discrepancy in their education. It's time for a Revolution!

Granted that many readers may want to suggest that a third, middle ground be added as a viable consideration, it is necessary to note that not only is there a persistence of dichotomies, but a persistence in the usage thereof. Why isn't there a persistence in the usage of a three-patterned array though many of us recognize the existence thereof? Is it that the brains of students, as a new generation, have a brain developing towards a greater usage of three-patterned observations but instructors, as an older generation have an "old" brain which is most comfortable teaching old brain information... like a stagecoach maker who would (assumedly) be more comfortable making stage-coaches than working on an assembly line putting a Cadillac together? Perhaps the field of Psychology (and other subject areas) needs to be made in another image... such as a trichotomous one which can encapsulate dichotomies because a focus on dichotomies has difficulty in encapsulating trichotomies. The two-patterned attributes of the right hemisphere changes the existing three-patterned structures of the left hemisphere attributes into patterns-of-two, while the three-patterned attributes of the left hemisphere more easily appreciate the two-patterned structure of the right hemisphere attributes without needing to impose its "three"-value on them.

The usage of a "two-patterned" perspective has been with humanity for a long time, and was easily adopted because there are multiple "two" references available to be readily seen by simply looking at one's own body. The adopted usage of a "three" reference is more difficult because it often requires correlations abstracted into a particular context. For example, the development of a three-part system of prehistory, was derived after numerous examples of historical artifacts had been collected. The system did not develop spontaneously as a result of a handful of examples. Here is a reference:

(Christian Jürgensen Thomsen was a) Danish archaeologist who deserves major credit for developing the three-part system of prehistory, naming the Stone, Bronze, and Iron ages for the successive stages of man's technological development in Europe. His tripartite scheme brought the first semblance of order to prehistory and formed the basis for chronological schemes developed for other areas of the globe by succeeding generations of archaeologists.

Curator of the National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen (1816–65), Thomsen arrived at his nomenclature in the course of classifying and arranging the museum's large collection of Scandinavian antiquities. Based on 20 years of work, the scheme was published in Ledetraad til nordisk Oldkyndighed (1836; A Guide to Northern Antiquities). He also founded the first ethnographic museum.

Source: "Thomsen, Christian Jüürgensen." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

In a sense, if I may be permitted to use the above wording, a discussion of a trinary code for computing may one day be accounted for as a semblance of order applied to human cognition and may well form the basis for additional analogical and digital schemes set against the backdrop of a chronology being presently made, and may be applicably developed for other subject areas by succeeding generations of Threesologists. Both past and present interests in the "threes" phenomena, without the presence of multiple examples from multiple subjects addressed from multiple perspectives; often leads an individual into a dead-end of interpretation; because they often view other patterns as irrelevant, adversarial, or anything but complementary.

But a Threesological approach requires a multi-disciplinary strategy that some readers find uncomfortable, because they are unable to adopt themselves to find the contextual reality of a digital to analogical or analogical to digital perspective. Whereas they might appreciate a reference such as monism and dualism as the numerical equivalents of one and two, they may have difficulty in assessing the prevalence of numerous three-patterned examples of different subject areas as an expression of the overall "presence of mind" with respect to a species whose mindset is dependent on the evolutionary capacity of the brain to develop in a planetary environment subjected to the conditions of incremental decay. Their application of both analogical and digital considerations are limited by the parameters being taught to exist by various experts in their respective fields. They are wary of venturing beyond these domains for fear of academic censor and quite possibly being viewed as a heretic who should be ostracized from any further serious consideration or mentionable membership in discussions.

Yet, the usage of a "three" in referencing ideas must originate from somewhere. If not as an actual count of sampled objects or events, then as a logical discretely packaged (compartmentalization) derived from a particular assemblage of examples on-hand. To me, pointing out the recurrence of "threes" in the subject of hearing does have an influence on the "threes" we find in language and grammar. Likewise, it seems rather logical and obvious that the triplet code of DNA should then not elicit surprise when three-patterned physiological structures are found. Likewise, it should be of no surprise to find the triplet code of DNA to have been influenced by some three-part triplet event in nature. And, if development in vocal utterances in infants exhibit an identifiable one- two- three babbling sequence, followed by a one- two- three word development sequence; then the discovery of a one- two- three pattern in adult ideas should come as no epiphany... but as a realization of how actually naive and unobservant we humans continue to be. And that taken altogether, these examples are part of an array of a chronological pre- and present history involving an overall larger biological stratum to which we can include the three Germ layers (Endoderm- Mesoderm- Ectoderm).

One phylum, Cnidaria (Coelenterata)—which includes sea anemones, jellyfish, and corals—has a diploblastic level of organization (i.e., its members have two layers of cells). The outer layer, called the ectoderm, and the inner layer, called the endoderm, are separated by an amorphous, acellular layer called the mesoglea; for these animals, bathing both cellular surfaces with environmental fluid is sufficient to supply their metabolic needs. All other major eumetazoan phyla (i.e., those with defined tissues and organs) are triploblastic (i.e., their members have three layers of cells), with the third cellular layer, called the mesoderm, developing between the endoderm and ectoderm. At its simplest, the mesoderm provides a network of packing cells around the animal's organs; this is probably best exhibited in the phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms).

Source: "Circulation." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Formation of the three primary germ layers

The inner cell mass, attached to the deep pole of the implanted blastocyst, is sometimes called the embryoblast, since it contains the cells that will form an embryo. The cellular mass enters into the process of gastrulation, through which the three primary germ layers segregate. Then the gastrula stage, the next advance after the blastula, begins to take form. First, cells facing the cavity of the blastocyst arrange into a layer known as the hypoblast. The thick residual layer, temporarily designated as epiblast, is the source of a definitive uppermost sheet, the ectoderm, and an intermediate layer, the mesoderm. In this second phase of gastrulation, some cells of the epiblast migrate to the midline position, then turn downward and emerge beneath as mesoderm. Such cells continue to spread laterally, right and left, between the endoderm and the residue of epiblast, which is now definitive ectoderm.

The germ layers are not segregated sheets whose cells have predetermined, limited capacities and inflexibly fixed fates in carrying out organ-building activities. Rather, the layers represent advantageously located assembly grounds out of which the component parts of the embryo emerge normally, according to a master constructional plan that assigns different parts to definite spatial positions and local sites. Thus, although the germ layers have developmental potencies in excess of their normal developmental fates, their ordinary participation in organ forming does not deviate from a definite, standard program. Only the principal functional tissue is designated in the name of each primary germ layer. In a few instances, such as the suprarenal (adrenal) glands and the teeth, a compound organ has important parts of different origin.

Source: "Prenatal development." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Subject page first Originated (saved into a folder): Thursday, November 13, 2014... 5:50 AM
Page re-Originated: Sunday, 24-Jan-2016... 08:51 AM
Initial Posting: Saturday, 13-Feb-2016... 10:59 AM
Updated Posting: Saturday, 31-March-2018... 2:39 PM

Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland