Threesology Research Journal
The Devil's Advocate and 3's Research
~ 14 ~

~ The Study of Threes ~
http://threesology.org


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Devil's Advocate Series:
pg.1 pg.2 pg.3 pg.4 pg.5 pg.6 pg.7 pg.8 pg.9
pg.10 pg.11 pg.12 pg.13 pg.14 pg.15 pg.16 pg.17 pg.18
pg.19 pg.20 pg.21 pg.22 pg.23 pg.24 pg.25 pg.26 pg.27
pg.28 pg.29 pg.30 A pg.30 B pg.31 pg.32 pg.33a pg.33b pg.33c
pg.34 pg.35 pg.36 pg.37 pg.38 pg.39 pg.40 pg.41 A pg.41 B



Examples of the {2-3-4} pattern-of-three model

2, 3, anf 4 of a kind poker hands 2, 3, 4  muscle origins

(images added to page: 4/21/2020; 3:25 AM)

Please note that while this page is focused on providing examples of the "2-3-4" formula of patterns-of-three, there are other "unconventional" sequences that can provide separate listings such as the 32- + 42- + 52- + of the Pythagorean theorem; or the ABC of alphabet teaching; or the XYZ of co-ordinate graphing layouts; or a bi-symmetrical exposition to produced six (as in insect legs), or the two eyes, two antenna, two front legs/ hands combined with 3 pairs of legs; or the dash- space- dot of Morse code; or the usage of a three-part boolean logic used to "embellish" the dichotomy of zeros and ones for computing based on the on/off switching of an electrical circuit; or the many other varieties of three-patterned ensembles that come to overlooked because a person in seeking some specifically desired sequence of seqenced sequences which may or may not involve periodic substitutions, delays, distractions, digressions, intermittancies, overlays, subdivision, exclusion, inclusion periodicity in a short, medium or long term appearance, operation, structure, etc...

Whereas many of us readily accept complexity as an "emergent property" exhibited by some simple configurations, we don't readily accept such a sequence to occur outside the formula we become accustomed to. It "throws us for a loop" so-to-speak when we encounter some pattern which we think is incongruous instead of altering our initial design which allows for what may at first appear to be some disparity. We want the observed patterns to fit our mental schemas instead of the other way around. Our brains sometimes works like a conveyor belt system that churns our mental products in a given way and given time, and think it odd or that something is wrong if the product or time of production becomes altered. We get used to a time schedule and product quantity as well as quality to be produced, and think it is somehow "disturbed" if the process is altered "to the beat of a different drummer"... unless a person is allowed to walk, skip, crawl, dance, march, etc. to the beat of a different drummer because those in their social purview make allowance for it.

Does the 2-3-4 pattern (like others), portray a sequence of developmental organization of what actually exists within that being observed, or is it a projection of human mentality seeking some metaphor for representing a recurring internalized cognitive pattern that symbolically recreates a physiological characterization that may be a selectively-oriented biologically-directed manifestation of an environmental influence that can.... at times, be reflected in a mirror-image portrayal which is opposite to a perceived reality; that is, in "opposition" (a reversed order and not necessarily in a combative sense... but perhaps seemingly in a bi-symmetrical sense with our observation thereof as a third point of reference) to that being proposed? Like the property of vision which flip-flops images on the back of the brain (visual cortex) and which may account for the recurring "flip-flopping" of ideas such as instead of the Sun revolving around the Earth, this (two-patterned) idea was flip-flopped to illustrate a reality where the Earth rotates around the Sun.


Flip flopped vision related to flip flopped ideas

Whereas we humans egotistically want to think that our brain is this magically marvelous erudite computing device that does so many wonderful things, we are not inclined to think that it was developed with flaws despite the acknowledgement that it grows and develops and accommodates itself to whatever conditions prevail. Instead of thinking that the brain is born in a well state, perhaps we should flip-flop this consideration and think that it is developed in a sick, diseased, misaligned, mistaken, etc... state of development and must be cured through experience... which typically involves some formal and/or informal education.

Another example of flip-flopping is the notion of phlogiston upon the discovery of oxygen:


(Phlogiston) in early chemical theory, (was a) hypothetical principle of fire, of which every combustible substance was in part composed. In this view, the phenomena of burning, now called oxidation, was caused by the liberation of phlogiston, with the dephlogisticated substance left as an ash or residue.

Johann Joachim Becher in 1669 set forth his view that substances contained three kinds of earth, which he called:

  1. the vitrifiable
  2. the mercurial
  3. the combustible

He supposed that, when a substance burned, combustible earth (Latin terra pinguis, meaning "fat earth") was liberated. Thus, wood was a combination of phlogiston and wood ashes. To this hypothetical substance Georg Ernst Stahl, at about the beginning of the 18th century, applied the name phlogiston (from Greek, meaning "burned"). Stahl believed that the corrosion of metals in air (e.g., the rusting of iron) was also a form of combustion, so that when a metal was converted to its calx, or metallic ash (its oxide, in modern terms), phlogiston was lost. Therefore, metals were composed of calx and phlogiston. The function of air was merely to carry away the liberated phlogiston.

The major objection to the theory, that the ash of organic substances weighed less than the original while the calx was heavier than the metal, was of little significance to Stahl, who thought of phlogiston as an immaterial "principle" rather than as an actual substance. As chemistry advanced, phlogiston was considered a true substance, and much effort was expended in accounting for the weight changes observed. When hydrogen, very light in weight and extremely flammable, was discovered, some thought it was pure phlogiston.

The phlogiston theory was discredited by Antoine Lavoisier between 1770 and 1790. He studied the gain or loss of weight when tin, lead, phosphorus, and sulfur underwent reactions of oxidation or reduction (deoxidation); and he showed that the newly discovered element oxygen was always involved. Although a number of chemists—notably Joseph Priestley, one of the discoverers of oxygen—tried to retain some form of the phlogiston theory, by 1800 practically every chemist recognized the correctness of Lavoisier's oxygen theory.


"phlogiston." Encyclopædia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite, 2013.

Another example of "flip-flopping" (though some readers may prefer to use a word such as "substitution" instead), was the miasma (bad air) theory verses germ theory:

Broad Street pump and the "Grand Experiment."

Many British physicians investigated the epidemiology of cholera.

  1. The first cholera epidemic in London occurred in 1831–32, when (John) Snow was still learning his craft.
  2. When the second cholera epidemic occurred, in 1848–49, he and others founded the London Epidemiological Society, intending to advise the government on ways to combat the disease.

Snow reasoned that cholera was caused by a microbelike agent, or germ, that was spread through direct fecal contact, contaminated water, and soiled clothing. However, his theory was at odds with the then prevailing theory that cholera was spread by bad air, or miasma, arising from decayed organic matter. The two etiologic hypotheses—germ theory and miasma—were widely debated, with available clinical and population-based evidence serving as the basis for arguments from both sides. The etiologic debate raged for many years. It was not until the causative organism, Vibrio cholerae (initially discovered in 1854), was well characterized in the 1880s that the debate was decided in favour of germ theory.

  1. Snow's respected reputation in epidemiology arose from two classic studies of the third epidemic to reach England, which began in 1853 and lasted until 1855.

The first study concerned the Broad Street pump outbreak of 1854, which killed many persons in the Soho neighbourhood. He used skilled reasoning, graphs, and maps to demonstrate the impact of the contaminated water coming from the Broad Street pump. The second study was the "Grand Experiment," also of 1854, which compared London neighbourhoods receiving water from two different companies. One company relied on inlets coming from the upper River Thames, located away from urban pollution, and the other company relied on inlets in the heart of London, where the contamination of water with sewage was common. Snow showed the harmful effect of contaminated water in two nearly equivalent populations, and he suggested intervention strategies to control the epidemic. His ideas and observations, including innovative disease maps, were published in his book On the Mode of Communication of Cholera (1855). Later, in the 1930s, Snow's work was republished as a classic work in epidemiology, resulting in lasting recognition of his work.


Ralph Frerichs: Professor in the Department of Epidemiology at University of California, Los Angeles.

"Snow, John." Encyclopædia Britannica.


John Snow and removal of the pump handle

A third example of "flip-flopping" can be seen in the idea of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. It is particularly easy to note that if the uncertainty principle is a certainty, then it can not be an uncertainty principle, unless we are to conclude the human mind engages in routnization of conveying reality in a dichotomous (flip-flopping) articulation where we say one thing but view another, sometimes called "double-speak" in politics and "legal doubles" in the legal profession... as if the human mind is stuttering and/or babbling. If the Uncertainty Principle is a Certainty, then the following definition needs to be flip-flopped to indicate that the concepts of exact position and exact velocity (together or apart) do have meaning in nature. It is merely our human flip-flopping faultiness which inclines us to see the world upside down... so-to-speak.

The (Uncertainty Principle) statement, articulated (1927) by the German physicist Werner Heisenberg, that the position and the velocity of an object cannot both be measured exactly, at the same time, even in theory. The very concepts of exact position and exact velocity together, in fact, have no meaning in nature.

"uncertainty principle." Encyclopædia Britannica.

Yet another example of flip-flopping came to mind after being reminded of the water torture used in Medieval Europe with respect to a psychotic reverence to the Devil, by way of the testing of individuals who were claimed by one or another religious authority to be possessed by or in league with Satan. Ironically, instead of what is presumed to be barbaric and illogical methods of torture being used to determine guilt or innocence, the people of today are thought to be subjected to a legal process that is more humane and just, as words which replace the old religious terms of being righteous. Unfortunately, the financial, social and personal (psychological/emotional) costs are akin to a modern day form of torture resembling a gauntlet one must navigate safely through while being subjected to the sometimes horrific barrage of accusations, suppositions and innuendoes thrust at them by the various forms of media in use. Let us take a look at the topic of torture to see how the views of humanity have "flip-flopped" from the religious to the secular in an effort to bring about a condition of truth, though the supposed secular (non-religious) perspective still remains alive and well below the surface of accusation and outcome, otherwise there would be no need to swear on a bible and say (3 times! like a magical, mystical incantation) that they will affirm to Tell the truth- Whole Truth- Nothing but the Truth... so help them god... The news media very often plays the part of a vociferous bloodthirsty audience (or antagonist against authority) at a medieval inquisition, "trial" or execution.

(Torture refers to) the infliction of severe physical or mental pain or suffering for a purpose, such as extracting information, coercing a confession, or inflicting punishment. It is normally committed by a public official or other person exercising comparable power and authority. Although the effectiveness of torture has been defended by many throughout history, notably Aristotle and Sir Francis Bacon, it was attacked as early as Roman times for encouraging its victims to lie.

In ancient Greece and Rome, physical torture was lawfully used, usually on noncitizens or slaves, as a means of obtaining information or confessions. Later, in early medieval Europe, torture was used as the trial itself in the ordeal, wherein the suspect's response to extreme physical pain served as the basis for establishing guilt or innocence. In the later Middle Ages, torture was again used to secure confessions in cases of serious crime (confession was known by the term “the queen of proofs”), though it was nominally subject to strict conditions.

"torture." Encyclopædia Britannica.


(An ordeal is) a trial or judgment of the truth of some claim or accusation by various means based on the belief that the outcome will reflect the judgment of supernatural powers and that these powers will ensure the triumph of right. Although fatal consequences often attend an ordeal, its purpose is not punitive.

(H.O.B. note: imagine people thinking torture... because it is labeled "ordeal" or in the context of an authoritatively designed activity seeking some supposed valuation described as "truth", is not itself a type of incarceration which consequentially is punitive, but is claimed to be otherwise, by those who do not have to be subjected to it, and everyone is thought to somehow have the same sensibilities!)

The main types of ordeal are ordeals by:

  1. Divination: A Burmese ordeal by divination involves two parties being furnished with candles of equal size and lighted simultaneously; the owner of the candle that outlasts the other is adjudged to have won his cause. Another form of ordeal by divination is the appeal to the corpse for the discovery of its murderer. The ordeal of the bier in medieval Europe was founded on the belief that a sympathetic action of the blood causes it to flow at the touch or nearness of the murderer.
  2. Physical test: The ordeal by physical test, particularly by fire or water, is the most common. In Hindu codes a wife may be required to pass through fire to prove her fidelity to a jealous husband; traces of burning would be regarded as proof of guilt. The practice of dunking suspected witches was based on the notion that water, as the medium of baptism, would “accept,” or receive, the innocent and “reject,” or buoy, the guilty. (H.O.B. note: In other words, if a person drowned then they were found to be innocent, but if they survived they were guilty and subject to execution.))
  3. Battle: In ordeal by combat, or ritual combat, the victor is said to win not by his own strength but because supernatural powers have intervened on the side of the right, as in the duel in the European Middle Ages in which the “judgment of God” was thought to determine the winner. If still alive after the combat, the loser might be hanged or burned for a criminal offense or have a hand cut off and property confiscated in civil actions.

"ordeal." Encyclopædia Britannica.

In giving an account of the "2-3-4" ensemble of a three-pattern example, it was not until I reached page 24 in this series did I realize that the double, triple and quadruple systems of accounting needs to be included. In other words, I didn't think of it until I was working on some other task in the series. Whereas the double-entry formula of accounting deals with the personalized commercial end of the profit and loss dichotomy which superseded the singular accounting method of one's personal holdings (and not typically an account of one's losses whose tabulation was conventionally kept in one's mental ledger and not "on the books" so-to-speak, a triple-entry model of accounting keeps track of external parties transactions to oneself, so as to have identical accounts), though it should be noted that several different interpretations of triple-accoutring are available and may be termed "triple book" accounting, which can "creatively adjust" the definition just like "creative accounting" methods are sometimes used to circumvent tax laws. A quadruple-entry accounting system often involves a basically contrived interaction between two or more agencies or departments who may service a third party, such as separate government agencies or inter-departmental activities of intentionally "complexified bureaucracies" providing one or more direct services to a citizen or publicly-private citizen-entity or to a person or entity that is doing the servicing to citizens. In other words, "guadruplification" of typical double-entry systems becomes interactively compounded to give the impression of exceeding a double-entry system where in fact the double is being replicated or "reduplicated" (like that seen in infant babbling).

At this (interjected) moment (1:52 AM, 11/6/2019, Wednesday), I am currently on page 37 in this series. A couple of days ago I took apart a mountain bike that was purchased at a Goodwill store for $39.95, in order to re-grease the bearings. This morning as I lay in bed I was recounting the re-grease job to a proposed email to my brother Charlie who is an avid cyclist. As I went over the scenario I realized I had greased the wheel bearings, the crank bearings and the fork bearings. A further contemplation on this "three", evoked the realization that there were two sets of bearings for these three different areas and that overall I re-greased two sets of wheel bearings, one set of crank bearings and one set of fork bearings. Hence, we have 2 bearings for 3 items totaling 4 overall areas. Thus, I encountered another 2-3-4 sequence.

While working on the "Embellished Dichotomies" pages at this date: 12/15/2019, I was reminded of the Duplex- Triplex- Fourplex housing arrangements.

As is often the case in my encounters with the "two", it is like a primitive person whose mind is conscious of the possibility of exceeding itself in complexity, but does not have the actual evolutionary established developmental criteria in their brain structure for the transition to take form (or is exhibiting a moment in time where evolution is caused to make a detour by returning to an earlier stage of development... a sort of retreat to catch one's breath and regroup... because our biology is designed as a tactic of survival, though other tactics no doubt may exist); whereby various types of substitutions are created to give the impression that a development beyond the "two" has been achieved, like labeling and illustrating a system of a thought as a "trigram" but it is merely an extension of a bigram, whereby a "two" is repeated and placed into a third position, but it is not an actual third symbol to reference the presence of an evolutionary step into a third realm of developmental achievement... even though one may be particularly aware that a transition of where they presently are is undergoing a developmental change into something other than where their mind presently is (perhaps seen as a shadow, flicker, whisper, sensation, scent, the "something there" phenomena, as an askewed corner-eye phenomena, pause, intermittence, vagrant aperture, mirrored reflections of mirrored reflections, etc...). Foreshortened, Trigrams are actually Bigrams in disguise. The human mind is using a camouflaging technique to give itself the impression of being that which it is not... like the raven in Edgar Allen Poe's poem:


In there stepped a stately Raven of the saintly days of yore;
Not the least obeisance made he; not a minute stopped or stayed he;
but, with mien of lord or lady, perched above my chamber door—
Perched upon a bust of Pallas just above my chamber door—
Perched, and sat, and nothing more.


Pallas, ancient Greek god of War and Warcraft Note: although you might find the word "pallas" denoting a reference the ancient Greek goddess Athena, it also references the ancient Greek Titan (a second generation deity) who was the god of battle and warcraft featured in statues with a spear. By way of being guilty by association, so-to-speak, the word pallas also denotes brandishing a spear, which is a symbol of the male penis that can be further linked to ancient customs of phallic worship and is said to be designed like a penis, just as are swords with a hilt. Primitive brains had peculiar-to-us interpretations of nature and the human place within the world where there often-times existed multiple gods, multiple demons... mixed with disease, malnutrition, lousy water and sewage, homelessness, widespread ignorance, greedy business people engaging in monopolies, self-serving medical professionals, unhygienic practices, war-mongering entities, double-standardly crooked politicians, superstitions, multiple medical issues, various cults, exploitive religious leaders and entities exploiting people by way of the knowledge gained from different models of confession, racism, discrimination, inequality, etc... Hmmm, sounds just like today. I must have taken a trip back in time to a very primitive past that keeps repeating itself because established institutions are "two-focused" and try to conceal this by trying to appear to be "three-focused" when those in the system do not have the brain development to step forward into an actual third formula of consciousness whatever this may mean in terms of a functional social order of humanity.

And as part of the above digression from the topic of the 2-3-4 ensemble, with respect to the state of humanity, let me include a poem I jotted down after it "popped" into mind and woke me up at 12:46 yesterday evening:

It is a well known fact
yet I need to remind
diseases often come back to back,
just as nature designed.

Thus it should be no surprise
to see waned diseases on the wax
tis one of Global Warming's facts,
more diseases like Trump will arise.

Both singularly and in groups
in isolated scourges and pandemics
sported by religious militant troupes,
or the military's many-styled fanatics.

The LGBTQ is an example no doubt
as is the anti-vaxers campaign
but let's not leave business out,
with its rooted evil to disdain.

More pain and suffering are to come
since global warming is not done
social diseases linked to population growth,
as Charon begins singing in his boat.

Let me interject two examples of the 2-3-4 ensemble which appeared to me this morning 5 Jan 2020 as I lay in bed and fought myself to get up to venture into the cold room. After which having decided to get up for good, I noticed the time as 1:58 AM. The two examples are:

  • I noticed that shaving razors come packaged as having 2 blades, 3 blades and 4-bladed versions. While I am aware of the straight razor still used by some barbers and the single blades used by my father and grandfather, these are not conventional items to be purchased in most stores. And while there may be versions with more than the 2-3-4 variants, I have not come across them.
  • The riddle of the Sphinx: What is the creature that walks on four legs in the morning, two legs at noon and three in the evening? The answer is that a child crawls on four limbs, later on the child matures and walks on two legs, followed by old age in which the person uses a cane. Hence, we have a 4- 2- 3 representation.

While working this morning: 5 Jan 2020 on the "A New Communism" pages, I came across a Britannica reference dealing with a biblical verse suggesting a simple type of Communism. The Verse comes from Acts 4:23. I then altered the numbers and made references to them as well, from Acts. The entries come from this site: Bible hub

  • Acts 4:32- All the believers were one in heart and mind. No one claimed that any of their possessions was their own, but they shared everything they had.
  • Acts 4:23- On their release, Peter and John went back to their own people and reported all that the chief priests and the elders had said to them.
  • Acts 3:42- (doesn't exist)
  • Acts 3:24- Indeed, beginning with Samuel, all the prophets who have spoken have foretold these days.
  • Acts 2:34- For David did not ascend to heaven, and yet he said, The Lord said to my Lord: Sit at my right hand.
  • Acts 2:43- Everyone was filled with awe at the many wonders and signs performed by the apostles.

It would be interesting to see what narrative could be unraveled by looking at the other parts of the bible in this regard.

Now, let me return to the 2-3-4 discussion involving the "two" attempting to grow into a "three" through the usage of repetition, just as we can see it occurring with the "three" being repeated and the presumed "four" is actually a repeated 3-to-1 ratio (three... stop... three... stop... etc... like 3 stop and 1 start codons) as a transcription occurring in multiple forms. For example:

This is the same thing we see in our usage of a comma to separate groups-of-three numbers in counting sequentially (ones-tens-hundreds... comma... thousands-ten thousands- hundred thousands... comma... etc.). The comma acts as a point of demarcation to point out a limitation in cognition has occurred and is repeating but that there is the usage of repetition to give the impression of acknowledging the presence of something beyond the boundary of present considerations which have stopped at the "three"... perhaps due to an environmentally influenced genetic constraint; just as the described primitive's usage of one or another word such as "many, much, more" (in their own language equivalent way), to describe that which is beyond the "two" in their counting systems that they become very adept at using... like a person skilled in the usage of an abacus and can compete with those using an electronic calculator within the scope of the general math problems of the same degree.

In short, the usage of doubled repetition... and then repetition with greater speed, is often used to give the impression of having progressed beyond a certain level of achievement, when this is not the actual case. The primitive system remains, though it can be quite adept at what it does, applied to multiple interests and aspects of everyday life (like the horse once used for practical applications of mobility, toil, food, etc...), yet its multiplicity of usage, even with increased speed (such as the binary system in computers), is not an actual step into a third realm of consciousness usage. Like the Chinese Trigrams which are actually Bigrams, the Christian and Hindu Trinities are actually references to a "two-patterned" formula of thinking giving expression to an unrecognized desire for mental activity that wants to exceed itself and thus compounds dualities with repetitive utterances (like chants and songs and sermons) that are duplicated and offered in faster terms to give an impression of a higher sense of consciousness— that has yet to be achieved, and can not be done until a fundamental change in the brain occurs... which it has, but has no presently viable environment in which to fully prosper... it is forced to live and adapted within a dominant social culture where a "two" mindset is pervasive in business, government and religion.

Is a metaphor of the "2-3-4" pattern-of-three to be found in the debate surrounding the 432HZ idea in music theory and its supposed relationship to some healing property important for human consciousness and other physical states? Yet, the 432Hz is companioned with two others (440, 528), thus yielding a trinity of tuning frequencies; all of which when subjected to various mathematical derivatives (such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division...), will yield varying combinations related to other patterns to be found in multiple subjects, but is a digression not being traced out in the present discussion.

A trinity of tuning frequencies

Similarly, can we speak of the American construction of social security numbers (3-2-4) (3 numbers separated by a hyphen, 2 numbers separated by a hyphen) as another example of the 2-3-4 sequencing except that its 3-2-4 sequencing mimics the dominance of cognitively aligned number patterns used in the culture? (In other words, the pattern of number groupings in social security numbers reflects the dominant cognitive alignment of enumeratable ideas either written (words/illustrations/graphs, etc...), spoken or artistically arranged? Does the 3-2-4 of social security numbers reflect the dominant cultural usage of cognitive patterning in that patterns-of-three are foremost, patterns-of-two are secondary, and patterns-of-four (or 3-to-1) are tertiary, with other identifiable patterns as being used less?


The 3-2-4 US Social Security number patterning

An example of the human mind engaging in a mirror-imaging orientation is the old idea in which it was argued that the Sun rotated around the Earth, and is commonly described as an expression involving the ego-centricity of humanity alternatively noted by the once wide-spread practice of map makers who would place a given kingdom on the center of a map, so as to fulfill the egotistical desires of their patron king whose Narcissism placed themselves and their kingdom in the central position of their world-view... in which "the world" (as their small minded brains could conceive of it), saw everything in one or another socialized orbit around themselves. Other examples are the variously adopted dichotomies which some people obsess over in their own world-views, as if they are proposing an enhanced perception of reality in direct opposition to a status quo acceptance frequently practiced via traditional observances. It is not that such dichotomous portrayals are wrong and the traditions are right... or vice versa; but that this is the typical strategy being played out time and again in different eras for different subjective interests as an indication of a recurring mental activity whose generality or commonality does not evolve into any higher order thinking (whatever this may actually mean since a commonality of thought has difficulty in grasping what this may mean due to an insistence of using ego-centrically definable methodologies of interpretation).

In stead of evolving into a higher order thinking, a practice of artificialization takes place in terms of metaphors via a type of linguistic gymnastics which creates the illusion, if not delusion, of an evolved thinking process inclined towards thinking a given idea represents some Natural or Universally applicable truth.


The 432HZ as a metaphor for the biological 2-3-4?

Note: The introduction of the above idea which questions the possibility of a biological connection between the two expressions, takes the discussion to a whole new level of consideration. Whether or not ancient peoples understood the mathematics or scientific measurement of the "432", does not mean they did not have some inherent instinct for it. This is not to say that I agree with the comments, but playing the Devil's Advocate requires alternative suppositions.

In gathering information for the "under-construction" timeline, biological references of events preceding the development of humanity is a requisite. Yet, so too is the understanding that recognized patterns exhibit resemblances to other functionalities such as those which may be alternatively described as a mechanical, electrical, fluidic, etc., model. A model used in one subject may well be applied to another subject, though a bit of "tweaking" or re-labeling needs to be applied for a given context. In any respect, one of biological events which needs to be addressed in terms of the modeling it portrays, is photosynthesis. Whereas one can find references to two stages, three stages, and four stages... like so many other pre-and post human biological events, we find a stark absence of stages with larger number activities. In other words, there are no references to 10, 20, 30, one-thousand, etc... stages. All of them are expressed as occurring in very low number activities. And amongst these 1 to 9 or 10 number references, we find a predominant usage of 2, 3, and 4, while other instances may add or subtract from this three-patterned grouping to produce another set-of-three such as 3,4,5... 4,5,6... 5,6,7... or some combination thereof (mix and match as you care to). Nonetheless, a constraint... or if you prefer... a conservation of events is the recurring model of activity.

In speaking of biological events, we often see such words as "cycles" or "phases", or "events" some other characterization revealing a movement or dynamic. Stasis or stationary, or static events are generally described in reference to movement, acceleration, or some other aspect of time interrelated speed or specification. This is of interest and importance to mention because it references a mindset that is focused on some sort of mechanization, to which we can follow-up on with examples from mechanical operations such as the internal combustion engine as an analogy.

Let us first take an example of the "two-phase" model of photosynthesis and compare it with a "two-cycle" gasoline (or petrol) motor:

Two stages model of Photosynthesis
3-stroke internal combustion engine

Now let me provide a 3-stages model of photosynthesis with a 3-stroke rotary engine:

3 stages model of photosynthesis
3 cycle rotary engine

Let us now move on to a 4-stages model of photosynthesis and a 4-stroke engine:

4 stages reference model to photosynthesis
4 stroke engine

Another interpretation of the "4-stroke" engine would be to view it as a 3 to 1 ratio, with the first three combined as a set in relation to the exhaust phase. The reason for making such a reference is that usage of the "3-to-1" label may be more beneficial when examples from multiple subjects are combined and compared. In any respect, the preceding "2, 3 and 4" phase models of cyclicity can be reference altogether as a 3-patterned group detailing different vantage points of perception which have been put into construction. This does not mean each stage was preceded by a simpler phase or that there was a successive stage of development as is described here, since, for example, we label the "mesoderm" of the three Germ layers as the middle layer, though it arrived after the ectoderm and endoderm. Even though it occurs centrally between the two, it evolved later on as the 3rd development. Without knowing this, one might be led to assume it arrive second in terms of evolutionary development.

The point to be made is how do we want to interpret the activities of photosynthesis from which to derive the best model in the overall analysis being undertaken in the timeline sequencing? Is it two-patterned, or three-patterned, or four-patterned, with respect to evolutionary development? And no less, why does the activity found in the different models of internal combustion engines resemble the same thinking processes applied to an interpretation of photosynthesis? Because it is natural, or is it a contrivance of the human brain subjected to unrecognized social and environmental constraints? And yet, this comparison is not enough. Let us now add the basic designs being applied to different engines in order to identify the basic underlying profiles which we also see in the diagrams being utilized by biologists to describe biological events:


Engine profiles image 1 Engine profiles image 2
Engine profiles image 3

Examples of the different pages looked at in the research of engines (besides what I could remember from working on several different kinds)>

Since engines are referred to as having "horse power", (used as a selling point long ago to encourage horse owners to find a relationship between their horses and the automobile so as to give up their ownership of horses for an ownership of a vehicle), let us view a "2- 3- 4" pattern with respect to the mobility of horses:

A 2, 3, 4 pattern can also be seen amongst horse mobility
Trios or Trinity or Tryptch? 3rd section of the 1st page

Mechanical models for living cells--a review. (Authors: Lim, Zhou EH, Quek ST.)


Nano Biomechanics Laboratory, Division of Bioengineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 9 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore 117576, Singapore. ctlim@nus.edu.sg Abstract:

As physical entities, living cells possess structural and physical properties that enable them to withstand the physiological environment as well as mechanical stimuli occurring within and outside the body. Any deviation from these properties will not only undermine the physical integrity of the cells, but also their biological functions. As such, a quantitative study in single cell mechanics needs to be conducted. In this review, we will examine some mechanical models that have been developed to characterize mechanical responses of living cells when subjected to both transient and dynamic loads. The mechanical models include:

  • The cortical shell-liquid core (or liquid drop) models which are widely applied to suspended cells;
  • The solid model which is generally used for adherent cells;
  • The power-law structural damping model which is more suited for studying the dynamic behavior of adherent cells;
  • The biphasic model which has been widely used to study musculoskeletal cell mechanics.

Based upon these models, future attempts can be made to develop even more detailed and accurate mechanical models of living cells once these three factors are adequately addressed:

  1. Structural heterogeneity.
  2. Appropriate constitutive relations for each of the distinct subcellular regions and components.
  3. Active forces acting within the cell. More realistic mechanical models of living cells can further contribute towards the study of mechano-transduction in cells.

Mechanical models for living cells

Note: When speaking of "adherent cells", this can easily be translated into "adjoining cylinders". Frequently there is the experimental procedure to use a one-cell model that can be described in terms of creating a one-cylinder model. "Structural heterogeneity" gives the impression of balance, since an unbalanced engine can rattle itself apart. The "constitutive relations" gives the impression of inter-cylinder relationship functioning. The "Active Forces" reference is clearly related to timing, fuel mixture, spark advance, combustion pressure, fuel octane, etc...

In the foregoing engine profiles, we see the simplistic designs of horizontal, vernicle, diagonal, circular and triangular. These are the same types of patterns the human mind is employing to its game theory strategies. These are being pointed out to make reference to the fact this is yet another indication that the human mind is being subjected to a restraint that appears to be linked with a rationalized system of survival mechanisms striving for some semblance of equilibrium in an incrementally deteriorating environment which is leading humanity along a course of extinction. We now need to compare these basic designs with the basic designs found in biological body plans:

3 basic types of body cavities
3 types of symmetry image 1
3 to 1 ratio of basic body plans

Is the human mind expressing itself in a recurrence of activity reminiscent of biological development which apparently follows a 1-2-3 maturational development sequence that does not necessarily proceed in a smooth and uninterrupted fashion with and without reversals, extinction, rebirth, mutation, and overlap with previous versions of similar variations from which later variations emerged but became separated from.

In other words, because we pay witness to a recurrent beginning to end or present example of the latter development... and many of the examples are expressed in a sequential three-part order, this does not necessarily mean such a sequence actually occurs, but that the human brain's orientation in this respect must utilize the model of expression it has as a functionality. If the patterns we see in biological and mechanical models reflect a human mindset formulated as an artificiality of environmental pressures, the low numbers being applied to the models may be an expression of an impression detailing the existence of one or more constraints which are forcing humanity into developing perceptions and a resulting culture of logic and intelligence that is appropriate to maintain a viable measure of equilibrium on a course that is headed for extinction... since it is known that the environment is directed towards an eventual obsolescence. The low quantity of models coupled to the low number values of cycles, phases, interactions, etc., are the expressions of a nature forcing life forms to conform to a process of adaptation most suited for short-term survival that is rationalized away by various social moods, government policies and cultural trends of saving this or that life form through a positivation of a prevailing negatively occurring reality.

Before leaving this page in order to continue it on the next installment of this series since so many images are being used, let me include a third representation of the "2-3-4" pattern by providing some images of the three different types of vertebrate heart, which can be contrasted with the so-called hearts of the cockroach and earthworm:

2, 3, 4 chambered heart examples image 1
2, 3, 4 chambered heart examples image 2
The cockroach heart
The five hearts of an earthworm
Comparative anatomy of Vertebrate hearts

When looking for examples of developmental evolution, a clear representation of a "1-2-3" sequence of development may not be readily available nor even encountered. However, alternative sequences may be plentiful from which we can provide a provision for their placement on the evolutionary timeline, though the idea of a one-two-sequence may have to be stuck in a "supposed-to-have-occurred" framework of possibility. Just because we prefer some neat and tidy 1-2-3 maturational development sequencing model, doesn't mean we will be able to find one and must therefore use what we have uncovered. There may be no existing representation of an early, later, central (or otherwise) character to provide for a presumed existence. Unless we want to assume that there is, on occasion, some spontaneous creation of a given biological event, then we will have to continue thinking in terms of transitional stages, whether or not we can find such "missing links" in the 1-2-3... chain. We simply continue to think there was a one which came before the two and that the "three" placement may or may not be the final word of development. For example, we have five fingers and five toes, more or less than this numerical value is considered to be an anomaly. But it doesn't have to keep us from thinking why there are not an abundant expressions of the "five" such as having five eyes, five heads, five noses, etc... Something is keeping this from happening and also constraining the quantity of events in biological processes to be limited in expression... just as we have a limited number of elements and limited number of organelles in a cell and a limited number of sub-atomic particles, etc...



Origination date (of page heading: Friday, September 6th, 2019... 3:54 AM
Initial Posting: Saturday, September 7th, 2019... 12:47PM
Latest Updated Posting: Thursday, April 23rd, 2020... 5:29 AM


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Herb O. Buckland
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