Threesology Research Journal
The Devil's Advocate and 3's Research
~ 11 ~

~ The Study of Threes ~
http://threesology.org


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Devil's Advocate Series:
pg.1 pg.2 pg.3 pg.4 pg.5 pg.6 pg.7 pg.8 pg.9
pg.10 pg.11 pg.12 pg.13 pg.14 pg.15 pg.16 pg.17 pg.18
pg.19 pg.20 pg.21 pg.22 pg.23 pg.24 pg.25 pg.26 pg.27
pg.28 pg.29 pg.30 A pg.30 B pg.31 pg.32 pg.33a pg.33b pg.33c
pg.34 pg.35 pg.36 pg.37



At this point, let me momentarily digress by providing some three-patterned examples from a variety of subjects as a means of illustrating a basic profile of human thinking processes that arrange different items in different contexts in hierarchical models sometimes denoted as series, steps, stops-and-starts, cycle, etc... some of which are designed with an ordering specifying a singular direction such as from top to bottom, bottom to top, left to right, right to left, diagonally, or specified as a mix-and-match the direction as you please, in an attempted means of suggesting or declaring the presence of complexity through multiplicity. In other words, a hierarchy may be established by a lower number such as in the scoring of golf, or a higher number as in the case of football, basketball, baseball, etc... From childhood one might remember the old phrase: "1st is worst, 2nd's the same, 3rd is best in any game". On some occasions the hierarchy amongst three has three directions or forms it may take (clearly seen in the procedures of politics today), such as in the case of the Rock- Paper- Scissors choosing mechanism:

Rock, Paper, Scissors betting model

Different formulas of hierarchical arrangement are used by different subjects, many of which use pyramidal structures such as Publishers Clearing House as an example from business advertising, and Maslow's hierarchy of needs, though there are to be found others in both business and psychology... and many other subject areas as well:


Three based categorization of Maslowian Hierarchy


Here is an example from the Publishers Clearing House (which gives the impression that I have an ordering history, which I don't):


Hierarchical model used in business

Illustrated by an intellectually described simplified three-patterned arithmetic formula as:

  • 1 + 2 = 3 or A2 + B2 = C2
  • Or Einstein's three-patterned mass-to-energy equivalency formula: E = M X C2
  • Or physics: Protons- Neutrons- Electrons

Threes in physics

3, 4, 5-patterned ideas arranged hierarchically

3-patterned hierarchical examples image 1

3-patterned hierarchies image 2

Here are a few more examples of 3-patterned hierarchical arrangements, though examples of different numerical patterns might well be included.

  • Music: Musical triads (yes, I am aware of musical dyads, quadrads, etc...)



3 types of fossil fuels which can all be used for energy provision. We can arrange them hierarchically by the supposed quantities available for usage, costs to extract and refine, or some other variable. (Note they represent the 3 basic forms of matter: liquid- gas- solid)... and because humanity has not yet learned how to use solid fuels very well, we can suggest that humanity's usage of its resources is like an infant suckling a breast for liquid energy.:

  1. Oil is a liquid fossil fuel that is formed from the remains of marine microorganisms deposited on the sea floor. After millions of years the deposits end up in rock and sediment where oil is trapped in small spaces. It can be extracted by large drilling platforms. Oil is the most widely used fossil fuel. Crude oil consists of many different organic compounds which are transformed to products in a refining process. It is applied in cars, jets, roads and roofs and many other. Oil cannot be found everywhere on earth and consequentially, there have been wars on oil supplies. A well-known example is the Gulf War of 1991.
  2. Natural gas is a gaseous fossil fuel that is versatile, abundant and relatively clean compared to coal and oil. Like oil, it is formed from the remains of marine microorganisms. It is a relatively new type of energy source. Until 1999, more coal was used than natural gas. Natural gas has now overtaken coal in developed countries. However, people are afraid that like oil, natural gas supplies will run out. Some scientists have even predicted this might happen by the middle or end of the 21st century. Natural gas mainly consists of methane (CH4). It is highly compressed in small volumes at large depths in the earth. Like oil, it is brought to the surface by drilling. Natural gas reserves are more evenly distributed around the globe than oil supplies.
  3. Coal is a solid fossil fuel formed over millions of years by decay of land vegetation. When layers are compacted and heated over time, deposits are turned into coal. Coal is quite abundant compared to the other two fossil fuels. Analysts sometimes predict that worldwide coal use will increase as oil supplies become scarcer. Current coal supplies could last for 200 years or more. Coal is usually extracted in mines. Since the middle of the 20th century, coal use has doubled. Since 1996 its application is declining again. Many developing countries depend on coal for energy provision because they cannot afford oil or natural gas.



  • Biology: 3 Domains of life set into a older to younger hierarchy: Archea- Bacteria, Eucaryota. While the presently used biological taxonomy has more than three categories, it too uses a hierarchical arrangement. Hierarchical arrangements are generally conceived of in a top- middle- bottom framework with sub-divisions, even if this orientation is not explicitly acknowledged nor portrayed. And though some may argue that using a basic "three" formula similar to small- medium- large, hot-warm-cold, fast-medium-slow, etc..., is for convenience of manufacture and enables the public to easily grasp the divisions, we must consider that this reason is a rationalization which is concealing a recurring cognitive profile brought about by an unrecognized imposition related to an equilibrium tethered to an incrementally deteriorating environment.
Taxonomic Ranking system

  • Horse racing: Triple crown

Triple crown of horse racing with its three types of betting


3 foundation Stallions

3 Granddaddys of all Thoroughbreds

Matchem, King Herod, and Eclipse

  • 3 RV refrigerator operational model types: 1-stage Residential (110V), 2 stage (110V + propane), 3 stage (110V + 12 V + propane).

3 way RV refrigerator operations

  • 3 divisions of insects hierarchically arranged: Head- Thorax- Abdomen... yet in humans it can be found that 3 divisions often direct attention to the feet, the mid-body (area between thighs and shoulders), and the head regions. Such regions for humans may be allocated to discussions involving footwear, swimsuits (or pants/shirts/ dresses/blouses) and head gear such as hats, caps, helmets, etc... Accessory or "sub" categories involve particularities such as socks, underwear, gloves, glasses, jewelry, tattoos, etc...

Head, Thorax and Abdomen

  • Recipients: The top three competitors receive medals (in the ranking order of Gold, Silver, Bronze).
  • Shape: Usually circular, featuring an attachment for a chain or ribbon
  • Diameter: A minimum of 60 mm
  • Thickness: A minimum of 3 mm
  • Material:
    • First place (the Gold medal): It is composed at least 92.5% of silver, plated with 6 grams of gold.
    • Second place (the Silver medal): 92.5% silver.[10]
    • Third place (the Bronze medal): It is 97.0% copper with 0.5% tin and 2.5% zinc; the metal value was about US$3 in 2010.[11]
    • Event details: The sport for which the medal has been awarded should be written on the medal

Gold, Silver, Bronze Olympic medals

Let me also propose, as a sort of reverse order of thinking from multiplicity towards a "three-part" conceptualization (instead of sub-dividing a three-part categorization into multiple others), that the 'stages' of Mitosis be conceptually altered by using the word "staging":

3 stagings of Mitosis

Note: using the word "stages" can direct the mind to arrange perceptions into a focused singularity of organization... implying a static nature, whereas the term "staging" can more appropriately attune perceptions into viewing the dynamics of overlapping intervals which more realistically describes transitional inter-facings. Analogously, if we use the word "stage" such as in the context of a "concert stage", we are inclined to think of a non-moving environmental setting. Whereas if we use the word "staging", we are disposed to think in terms of change... or movement.

We sometimes forget that the use of illustrations is an expressive art form. Illustrators are artists who must necessarily be sensitive to the words used in their descriptions, just as the name of songs and titles or chapters of books can either impact a reader negatively or positively.


  • Acids and bases will fall under one or more of the following three categories:

  1. Arrhenius acids/bases
  2. Bronsted-Lowry acids/bases
  3. Lewis acids/bases
  • 3 names for one important biological cycle: The citric acid cycle (CAC) – also known as the TCA cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle) or the Krebs cycle. (The citric acid cycle is tribasic.)

  • 3 types of Endocytosis: Phagocytosis (cell eating), Pinocytosis (cell drinking), Receptor-mediated endocytosis (also known as clathrin-mediated endocytosis).

3 types of Endocytosis

  • 3 major biosynthetic pathways:

3 major biosynthetic pathways

  • Or art: one-two-three dimensional depictions of space, time and color arrangements.
3 visual art types

  • Or genetics: Triplet code in DNA, triplet microtubules, ADP-AMP-ATP, etc...
  • Or anatomy: Threes in Human anatomy (And yes, I am aware that I use the same images over and over again on different web pages... including the Devil's Advocate series. However, I find that many people come across one or another web page by way of a random process of selectivity and not necessarily due to following a series of articles. Hence, they may not be aware of a previous usage.)

Image is a link to Dr. McNulty's list of anatomical threes page

  • Or the threes in the Benson-Calvin energy cycle: (Set of chemical reactions that take place in chloroplasts during photosynthesis:
Calvin Cycle):

A repetition of 3s in the Benson-Calvin cycle

The three-patterned cognitive formula is clearly recognizable in the phony three-part phrase of a two-part practice known as the "Checks and Balances" theory seen in the three-patterned design of the U.S. government branches:

  1. Executive: U.S. Presidential office.
  2. Legislative: U.S. Congress
  3. Judicial: U.S. Department of Justice typically referring to the Supreme Court.

Which supposedly oversees a three-divisioned society of:

  1. Upper class: generally, the wealthy people of a society who may or may not own businesses.
  2. Middle class: generally, the White collar workers who hold professional or managerial positions.
  3. Lower class: generally, the blue collar, no collar and poor.

In terms of the present style of pseudo-democracy being practiced in the U.S. and elsewhere, the desire for a better form of government or New Government (called a Cenocracy), there has been offered the idea that a greater form of Democratic expression can be found in the adoption of a system which applies the Jury model of governance in order to establish a true "Peoples Government":


3 branches of government without a public peerage

Current government Model of "Checks and Balances".
All governments claiming to be a Democracy exercise some variation of this schematic.


Present Checks and Balances schematic

This is a revised "Checks and Balances" model (Blueprint)
in which the people are Congressionally mandated to have a full measure
of their Inalienable Rights by way of a Peoples Legislative Branch
that enables the public to have a full and dominant voice.


Revised Checks and Balances schematic

This is a Provisional schematic of a Peoples Legislative Branch
being included in the "Checks and Balances" formula in order to create a better
exercise of Democracy allowing for a full measure of public participation in all
governmental affairs concerned with the well-being and overall welfare of the people.


Provisional schematic of Peoples Legislative Branch

Cenocracy: This is not a Democracy, page 1

And let us not fail to mention that in a review of the three classes their are many Sociologically-colored interstitial derivations that are sometimes more useful at complicating perceptions than elucidating cultural infinitesimals... mix and match as you will)... which significantly relegates the public to an insignificant role in a presumed "peoples government", where "people" is the label of a selective (but seldom recognized or categorized) as an underlying three-part authoritative minority variously labeled in terms related to some business, military, judicial, religious, political, racial, male, female, etc., perspective; that wishes to practice selective entitlements revolving around their own three-part ideology of Me- Myself- and I.

Societal divisions with internalized classes

If you are not familiar with the many recurrences of "threes", it is difficult for you to propose the development of a government structure which has not been contemplated with the underlying biological activity governing behavior... not to mention taking into account the ongoing incremental deterioration of the planet and solar system which forces life to abide by the dictates of establishing a form of equilibrium tied to a rationalistic formula of survival headed for extinction... so long as humans remain on the planet and in this solar system, as well as retaining its human formula of genetics.




Origination date: Tuesday, September 2nd, 2019... 4:08 AM
Initial Posting: Wednesday, September 4th, 2019... 10:27 AM


Your Questions, Comments or Additional Information are welcomed:
Herb O. Buckland
herbobuckland@hotmail.com